★★☆TED Lesson / Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! (サニー・ブラウン 「落書きする人、集まれ!」)

2012年08月03日 ★★☆, business, culture, TED.

TED Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite!

About This Talk

Studies show that sketching and doodling improve our comprehension — and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we’re caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite! She makes the case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen.

*There is a word list below the script. The list includes blue colored words which are in the script.

この動画について

研究によると、スケッチや落書きは私たちの理解力や独創的な思考力を高めることが示されています。ではなぜ私たちは未だに会議中に落書きしているのを見られると恥ずかしく思うのでしょうか? サニー・ブラウンは「落書きする人、集まれ!」のかけ声の元、紙とペンで頭は活性化できると主張しています。

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日本語訳はこの記事の最後にあります。また、日本語訳の下に単語帳(WORDS)があります。本文で青文字となっている単語がまとまっています。

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TEDを使った勉強法はこちらの記事、“世界最高峰の講演、TEDを使った英語学習方法の紹介”にまとめてありますので参考にしてください。そしてもし良かったらこの記事をきっかけにフィリピン人とのオンライン英会話に挑戦してみてください。ラングリッチの無料レッスンの申し込みはこちらです。

 

Script

(1) So I just want to tell you my story. I spend a lot of time teaching adults how to use visual language and doodling in the workplace. And naturally, I encounter a lot of resistance, because it’s considered to be anti-intellectual and counter to serious learning. But I have a problem with that belief, because I know that doodling has a profound impact on the way that we can process information and the way that we can solve problems.

(2) So I was curious about why there was a disconnect between the way our society perceives doodling and the way that the reality is. So I discovered some very interesting things. For example, there’s no such thing as a flattering definition of a doodle. In the 17th century, a doodle was a simpleton or a fool — as in Yankee Doodle. In the 18th century, it became a verb, and it meant to swindle or ridicule or to make fun of someone. In the 19th century, it was a corrupt politician. And today, we have what is perhaps our most offensive definition, at least to me, which is the following: To doodle officially means to dawdle, to dilly dally, to monkey around, to make meaningless marks, to do something of little value, substance or import, and — my personal favorite — to do nothing. No wonder people are averse to doodling at work. Doing nothing at work is akin to masturbating at work; it’s totally inappropriate.

(Laughter)

(3) Additionally, I’ve heard horror stories from people whose teachers scolded them, of course, for doodling in classrooms. And they have bosses who scold them for doodling in the boardroom. There is a powerful cultural norm against doodling in settings in which we are supposed to learn something. And unfortunately, the press tends to reinforce this norm when they’re reporting on a doodling scene — of an important person at a confirmation hearing and the like — they typically use words like “discovered” or “caught” or “found out,” as if there’s some sort of criminal act being committed.

(4) And additionally, there is a psychological aversion to doodling — thank you, Freud. In the 1930s, Freud told us all that you could analyze people’s psyches based on their doodles. This is not accurate, but it did happen to Tony Blair at the Davos Forum in 2005, when his doodles were, of course, “discovered” and he was labeled the following things. Now it turned out to be Bill Gates’ doodle. (Laughter) And Bill, if you’re here, nobody thinks you’re megalomaniacal. But that does contribute to people not wanting to share their doodles.

(5) And here is the real deal. Here’s what I believe. I think that our culture is so intensely focused on verbal information that we’re almost blinded to the value of doodling. And I’m not comfortable with that. And so because of that belief that I think needs to be burst, I’m here to send us all hurtling back to the truth. And here’s the truth: doodling is an incredibly powerful tool, and it is a tool that we need to remember and to re-learn.

(6) So here’s a new definition for doodling. And I hope there’s someone in here from The Oxford English Dictionary, because I want to talk to you later. Here’s the real definition: Doodling is really to make spontaneous marks to help yourself think. That is why millions of people doodle. Here’s another interesting truth about the doodle: People who doodle when they’re exposed to verbal information retain more of that information than their non-doodling counterparts. We think doodling is something you do when you lose focus, but in reality, it is a preemptive measure to stop you from losing focus. Additionally, it has a profound effect on creative problem-solving and deep information processing.

(7) There are four ways that learners intake information so that they can make decisions. They are visual, auditory, reading and writing and kinesthetic. Now in order for us to really chew on information and do something with it, we have to engage at least two of those modalities, or we have to engage one of those modalities coupled with an emotional experience. The incredible contribution of the doodle is that it engages all four learning modalities simultaneously with the possibility of an emotional experience. That is a pretty solid contribution for a behavior equated with doing nothing.

(8) This is so nerdy, but this made me cry when I discovered this. So they did anthropological research into the unfolding of artistic activity in children, and they found that, across space and time, all children exhibit the same evolution in visual logic as they grow. In other words, they have a shared and growing complexity in visual language that happens in a predictable order. And I think that is incredible. I think that means doodling is native to us and we simply are denying ourselves that instinct. And finally, a lot a people aren’t privy to this, but the doodle is a precursor to some of our greatest cultural assets. This is but one: this is Frank Gehry the architect‘s precursor to the Guggenheim in Abu Dhabi.

(9) So here is my point: Under no circumstances should doodling be eradicated from a classroom or a boardroom or even the war room. On the contrary, doodling should be leveraged in precisely those situations where information density is very high and the need for processing that information is very high. And I will go you one further. Because doodling is so universally accessible and it is not intimidating as an art form, it can be leveraged as a portal through which we move people into higher levels of visual literacy. My friends, the doodle has never been the nemesis of intellectual thought. In reality, it is one of its greatest allies.

Thank you. (Applause)

 

Let’s talk about the article base on the questions below.

Viewpoints or discussion

  1. Do you want to doodle at your workplace or not? Why or why not?
  2. If you were the CEO or president of a company, would you encourage doodling or not?
  3. Except for doodling, what should be acceptable things that make people productive at work or study? Ex. Filipinos like to sing while working to not feel bored.

 

WORDS

(1)  doodle /ˈduːdl/ verb to draw lines, shapes, etc, especially when you are bored or thinking about sth else:

encounter /enˈkoun(t)ər/ verb, an unexpected or causal meeting with someone or something

anti-intellectual adjective, opposed or hostile to intellectuals or intellectual views

counter /ˈkaʊntə(r)/ noun, ~ (to sb/sth) (formal) a response to sb/sth that opposes their ideas, position, etc:

profound /prəˈfound, prō-/ adjective, having or showing great knowledge or insight

impact /ˈimˌpakt/ noun, the effect or influence of one person, thing, or action, on another

(2) curious /ˈkyo͝orēəs/ adjective, eager to know or learn something

disconnect /ˌdɪskəˈnekt/ verb ~ sth (from sth) to separate sth from sth:

perceive /pərˈsēv/ verb, interpret or look on

flatter /ˈflatər/ verb, ~ sb to say nice things about sb, often in a way that is not sincere, because you want them to do sth for you or you want to please them:

simpleton /ˈsimpəltən/ noun, a foolish of gullible person

yankee doodle noun, a patriotic song popular with the Americans in their Revolutionary War

swindle /ˈswindl/ verb, use deception to deprive (someone) of money or possessions

ridicule /ˈridiˌkyo͞ol/ verb ~ sb/sth, to make sb/sth look silly by laughing at them or it in an unkind way = MAKE FUN OF

to make fun of idiom, to tease, ridicule or make jokes about, generally in a pejorative manner

offensive /əˈfensiv/ noun, causing someone to feel deeply hurt, upset, or angry

dawdle /ˈdôdl/ verb, waste time; be slow

dilly-dally verb, waste time through aimless wandering or indecision

monkey around idiom, to act foolishly

substance /ˈsəbstəns/ noun, the most important or essential part of something; the real or essential meaning

adverse /adˈvərs, ˈadvərs/ adjective, preventing success or development; harmful; unfavorable

akin /əˈkin/ adjective, of similar character

masturbate /ˈmæstəbeɪt/ verb ~ (yourself) to give yourself sexual pleasure by rubbing your sexual organs

inappropriate /ˌinəˈprōprē-it/ adjective, not suitable or proper in the circumstances

(3) additionally /əˈdiSHənl-ē/ adverb, as an extra factor or circumstance

horror /ˈhôrər, ˈhär-/ noun, a thing causing a feeling of fear, shock, or disgust

boardroom /ˈbᴐːdruːm;/ noun a room in which the meetings of the board of a company (= the group of people who control it) are held:

norm /nôrm/ noun, something that is usual, typical, or standard

unfortunately /ˌənˈfôrCHənətlē/ adv. used to say that a particular situation or fact makes you sad or disappointed, or gets you into a difficult position

reinforce /ˌrē-inˈfôrs/ verb, strengthen or support, especially with additional personnel or material

confirmation /ˌkänfərˈmāSHən/ noun, the action of confirming something or the state of being confirmed

typically /ˈtipikəl/ adjective, having the distinctive qualities of a particular type of person or thing

criminal act verb, an unlawful action, something against the law

commit /kəˈmɪt/ verb ‣CRIME to do sth wrong or illegal

(4) psychological /ˌsīkəˈläjəkəl/ adjective, of, affecting, or arising in the mind; related to the mental and emotional state of a person

aversion /əˈvərZHən/ noun, a strong dislike or disinclination

analyze /ˈanlˌīz/ verb, examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of (something, especially information), typically for purposes of explanation and interpretation

psyche /sīk/ noun, mental capacity

accurate  /ˈakyərit/ adjective, correct in all details; exact

megalomaniacal /ˌmegəlōˈmānēˌak, -məˈnīəkəl / adjective, a person who is obsessed with their own power

(5) real deal idiom, the actual thing

intensely focused verb, state of being able to put all attention to something

verbal /ˈvᴈːbl/ adj. relating to words:

burst /bərst/ verb, break suddenly and violently apart, spilling the contents, typically as a result of an impact or internal pressure

hurtle /ˈhərtl/ verb, move or cause to move at a great speed, typically in a wildly uncontrolled manner

(6) spontaneous /spänˈtānēəs/ adjective, performed or occurring as a result of a sudden inner impulse or inclination and without premeditation or external stimulus

retain /riˈtān/ verb, continue to have something; keep possession of

counterpart /ˈkountərˌpärt/ noun, a person or thing holding a position or performing a function that corresponds to that of another person or thing in another place

preemptive /prēˈemptiv/ adj. done to stop sb taking action, especially action that will be harmful to yourself:

(7) intake /ˈinˌtāk/ noun, an act of taking something into the body

auditory /ˈôdiˌtôrē/ adjective, of or relating to the sense of hearing

kinesthetic /ˌkinəsˈ-ˈTHetik/ noun, awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs

chew/tʃuː/ verb [I, T] to bite food into small pieces in your mouth with your teeth to make it easier to swallow:

modality /mōˈdalitē/ noun, a particular mode in which something exists or is experienced or expressed

couple sth with sth, phrase v [usually passive] if one thing is coupled with another, the two things happen or exist together and produce a particular result

simultaneously /ˌsīməlˈtānēəslē/ adverb, at the same time

equate /iˈkwāt/ verb, consider (one thing) to be the same as or equivalent to another

(8) nerdy /nərdi/ adjective, a foolish or contemptible person who lacks social skills or is boringly studious

anthropological /ˌanTHrəˈpäləjē/ noun, the study of human kind

unfold /ˌənˈfōld/ verb, to open or spread out from a folded position

artistic /ärˈtistik/ adjective, having or revealing natural creative skill

across space and time idiom, encompassing every thing

exhibit /igˈzibit/ verb, manifest or deliberately display

evolution /ˌevəˈlo͞oSHən/ noun, the gradual development of something, especially from a simple to a more complex form

complexity /kəmˈpleksitē/ noun, the state or quality of being intricate or complicated

predictable /priˈdiktəbəl/ adjective, able to be predicted

instinct /ˈinstiNGkt/ noun, an innate, typically fixed pattern of behavior in animals in response to certain stimuli

privy /ˈprivē/ adjective, sharing in the knowledge of

precursor /ˈprēˌkərsər, priˈkər-/ noun, a person or thing that comes before another of the same kind; a forerunner

architect /ˈärkiˌtekt/ noun, a person who designs buildings and in many cases also supervises their construction

(9) circumstance /ˈsərkəmˌstans, -stəns/ noun, a fact or condition connected with or relevant to an event or action

eradicate /iˈradiˌkāt/ verb, destroy completely; put an end to

leverage /ˈlev(ə)rij, ˈlēv(ə)rij/ verb ~ sth (business), to get as much advantage or profit as possible from sth that you have:

universally /ˌjuːnɪˈvᴈːsəli/ adv. 1 by everyone: 2 everywhere or in every situation:

accessible /əkˈsesəbl/ adj. 1 that can be reached, entered, used, seen, etc:

intimidate /ɪnˈtɪmɪdeɪt/ verb ~ sb (into sth/into doing sth), to frighten or threaten sb so that they will do what you want:

portal /ˈpᴐːtl;/ noun 1 [usually pl.] (formal or literary) a large, impressive gate or entrance to a building

literacy /ˈlɪtərəsi/ noun [U] the ability to read and write:

nemesis /ˈneməsɪs/ noun, an opponent or enemy that is likely to be impossible for you to defeat, or a situation that is likely to be impossible for you to deal with

ally /ˈælaɪ/ (pl. ―ies) noun, a person who helps and supports sb who is in a difficult situation, especially a politician:

 

日本語訳

(1) 私自身のことをお話しします 私は大人を対象に 視覚言語や落書きの 仕事への活用術を教えています そういうことに抵抗を持つ人がよくいます 知的でなく 真剣な学習に そぐわないと思われているのです でも私はそうは思いません 落書きというのは 私たちの情報処理能力や 問題解決能力に対して 大きな影響を与えるからです

(2) 落書きに対する社会の認識と現実との間に なぜこんなズレがあるのか 不思議に思いました そして非常に興味深いことを発見しました 実際“doodle”(落書き)という言葉ほど ひどい意味を持たされてきた言葉もありません 17世紀には「マヌケ」「愚か者」の意味でした ヤンキー・ドゥードゥルという歌がありますね 18世紀には動詞となり 「だまし取る」「笑いものにする」「からかう」といった意味でした 19世紀には「汚職政治家」を表していました そして今日では 史上最も不快な定義だと 個人的には思えるのですが “doodle”の公式の定義は 「無駄に時間を過ごす」「ぐずぐずする」 「ブラブラする」「無意味なことを描く」 「価値や実質のないことをする」 といったことであり その中でも 私のお気に入りの定義は 「何もしない」です そりゃみんな職場で“doodle”したくないわけです 職場で何もしないのは 職場でエッチするのと同様

まったく不適切なことです (笑)

(3) また恐ろしい話も耳にします 教室で落書きすると先生に叱られ 会議室での落書きは上司に叱られます 学習の場において落書きすべきではないという 強い文化的規範があるのです 残念ながらマスコミも この規範を後押ししています 例えば公聴会で重要人物が 落書きなどしていようものなら マスコミはいつも「発見した」 「捉えた」「発覚した」などと それが犯罪ででもあるかのように報道します

(4) 心理学的にも落書きが嫌われる理由があります フロイトのおかげです 1930年代にフロイトは 落書き内容から 精神分析が可能だと 主張したのです これは正確ではありません しかし2005年のダボス会議で ブレア首相の落書きが「発見」され 誇大妄想的などと分析されました 後にその落書きはビル・ゲイツのものだったと分かりました (笑) ここにいらっしゃるかわかりませんが— ゲイツさん 誰もあなたを誇大妄想だなんて思ってませんから そういったことのお陰で みんな落書きを見せたくないのです

(5) 本当のことを話しましょう 私が思うに 私たちの文化では言語情報が あまりに重視されているため 落書きの価値がほとんど見えないのです 私はこれに不満で 正しい考えを 広めなければと思い 皆さんを真実へお連れしようと ここに来ました その真実とは 落書きは非常に強力なツールであり 私たちはそれを思い出し 学び直す必要があるということです

(6) “doodle”を新たに定義してみましょう この場に辞書出版社の方がいれば 後でお話をしたいものです “doodle”の本当の定義は 「思考を促すため 思いのままに描くこと」です だから何百万もの人が落書きするんです 他にも面白い事実があります 言語情報を聞いているときに 落書きをする人は しない人より多くのことを記憶しています 落書きは気が散るとする事だと 思われていますが むしろそれは 気が散るのを予防する方法なんです さらに独創的な問題解決や 難解な情報処理をする際にも 大きな効果があります

(7) 学習者が 判断のための 情報を得る方法は4通りあります 視覚的なもの・聴覚的なもの ・読み書き・体を使うことの4つです 私たちが情報をよく検討し それを基に行動を起こすには この中の少なくとも2つの方法を使うか 1つの方法を感情的経験と 組み合わせる必要があります 落書きの素晴らしい点は 4つの方法を同時に実行でき 感情にも訴えうるということです 大したことではないでしょうか 「何もしない」に等しいと見なされていることにしては

(8) かなりオタクっぽいですが これは 初めて知った時にとても感動した話です 子どもの芸術的発展過程について 文化人類学的調査が行われたのですが 時代や地域を問わず 子どもの視覚的知性は同じ発展を辿る ということが分かりました 言いかえると 子どもは 複雑に発展する視覚言語を共有しており その過程は予測可能だということです これはすごいことだと思います 落書きは人間に生来のものなのに 私たちはその本能を否定しているのです 最後に あまり知られてないことですが 最も偉大な文化遺産の中には 落書きが元となったものがあります 1つだけ紹介しますが これはグッゲンハイム・アブダビの元となったものです

(9) 要点をまとめましょう どんなことがあっても 落書きを 教室や会議室や作戦司令室から 排除すべきではありません それどころか 情報量が多く 情報処理の必要が 大きな状況でこそ まさに落書きを活用すべきなんです さらに言わせてもらうと 落書きはどこででもすることができ 近寄りがたい芸術とは違います 落書きは 人々の視覚的理解力を高めるための 入り口として活用することができます 皆さん 落書きは決して 知的思考の宿敵なんかではありません むしろ最高の味方なのです

ありがとうございました (拍手)
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