Read and understand the article. If you may have any difficult words to pronounce and words you cannot understand, always ask your teacher.
*Teachers will divide the article into 2-3 paragraphs to help you understand and check the pronunciation of the difficult words.
*Read the words carefully.
- corruption /kəˈrəpSHən/ (n.) dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery
- perceive /pərˈsēv/ (vb.) become aware or conscious of something; come to realize or understand
- persuade /pərˈswād/ (vb.) to cause someone to do something by asking, arguing, or giving reasons; to convince someone
- secretive /ˈsēkritiv/ (adj.) not letting people see or know what you are doing or thinking; tending to act in secret
- accountability /əˌkountəˈbilitē/ (n.) the fact or condition of being accountable; responsibility
* Read the text below
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(1) A group that brings attention to the issue of corruption says levels of bribery, abuse of power and secret dealings are still “very high” in many countries.
(2) Transparency International this week released its yearly Corruption Perceptions Index. The Berlin-based group rates 176 countries and territories with a number from zero to 100. Bigger numbers are better.
(3) The index measures the perceived, or apparent, level of corruption in a country. The group uses information from a number of economic sources. They include the African Development Bank, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum.
(4) Corruption takes many forms. Transparency International calls it “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.” One common form of corruption is bribery: the use of money or gifts to persuade another person to do something wrong or illegal. Corruption is not easy to measure because it is secretive. But the World Bank estimates that about $1 trillion in bribes are paid every year worldwide. Stealing public money is another form of corruption.
(5) Huguette Labelle is chair of Transparency International. She says the problem of corruption affects millions of people and limits their ability to get necessary services.
(6) “And in some countries it can be that 50 percent of the population had to pay a bribe to gain access to essential services like water, education, health, licenses.”
(7) A group of small, developed nations scored highest on the new list. Denmark, Finland and New Zealand received a rating of 90. Among large nations, the United States rated 73 while China rated 39.
(8) The countries with the greatest perceived level of corruption on the list are Somalia, North Korea and Afghanistan with scores of 8.
(9) Robin Hodess directs research at Transparency International. She says the index can show people involved in policy decisions how others see the issue of corruption in their countries.
(10) “We need evidence about how corruption works. We need to know where to target the reforms needed to promote transparency, accountability and integrity.”
(11) The index measures perceptions held by experts, businesses and organizations. And their opinions are important. The World Bank notes that countries showing improvements in perception indexes had greater foreign investment and economic growth. However, foreign aid and international trade is less likely for countries perceived as highly corrupt.
*Let’s talk about the article base on the questions below
- Can you say that your country’s officials are corrupt? Why or why not? Please support your answer.
- Have you ever tried being a leader in a team, an organization, etc? What kind of leader were you? Please describe.
- In your opinion, what punishment/s would you give to those corrupt officials?
*Let’s make English compositions using the words from the article.
EX) The index measures the perceived, or apparent, level of corruption in a country.
EX) Corruption is not easy to measure because it is secretive.