★★★TED Lesson / Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world, Lesson2 (ジェーン・マゴニガル 「ゲームで築くより良い世界」)

2012年08月05日 ★★★, entertainment, TED.

TED Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world

About This Talk

Games like World of Warcraft give players the means to save worlds, and incentive to learn the habits of heroes. What if we could harness this gamer power to solve real-world problems? Jane McGonigal says we can, and explains how.

*There is a word list below the script. The list includes blue colored words which are in the script.

*This is the second lesson of the Jane McGonigal speech. Lesson 1 is here.


World of Warcraftのようなゲームはプレーヤーに世界を救う手段を与え、ヒーローの行動様式を身につけるよう動機づけます。もしこのゲーマーの力を、現実の世界の問題を解決するために使えたとしたらどうでしょう? ジェーン・マゴニガルはそれは可能だと言い、その方法を説明しています。


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Lesson2 Script (Video Time 4:20~ 8:57)

(8) What about games makes it impossible to feel that we can’t achieve everything? How can we take those feelings from games and apply them to real-world work? So, I looked at games like World of Warcraft, which is really the ideal collaborative problem-solving environment. And I started to notice a few things that make epic wins so possible in online worlds.

(9) So, the first thing is whenever you show up in one of these online games, especially in World of Warcraft, there are lots and lots of different characters who are willing to trust you with a world-saving mission, right away. But not just any mission, it’s a mission that is perfectly matched with your current level in the game. Right? So, you can do it. They never give you a challenge that you can’t achieve. But it is on the verge of what you’re capable of. So, you have to try hard, but there’s no unemployment in World of Warcraft. There is no sitting around wringing your hands, there’s always something specific and important to be done. And there are also tons of collaborators. Everywhere you go, hundreds of thousands of people ready to work with you to achieve your epic mission.

(10) That’s not something that we have in real life that easily, this sense that at our fingertips are tons of collaborators. And also there is this epic story, this inspiring story of why we’re there, and what we’re doing. And then we get all this positive feedback. You guys have heard of leveling up and plus-one strength, and plus-one intelligence. We don’t get that kind of constant feedback in real life. When I get off this stage I’m not going to have plus-one speaking, and plus-one crazy idea, plus-20 crazy idea. I don’t get that feedback in real life.

(11) Now, the problem with collaborative online environments like World of Warcraft is that it’s so satisfying to be on the verge of an epic win all the time that we decide to spend all our time in these game worlds. It’s just better than reality. So, so far, collectively all the World of Warcraft gamers have spent 5.93 million years solving the virtual problems of Azeroth. Now, that’s not necessarily a bad thing. It might sound like it’s a bad thing. But to put that in context: 5.93 million years ago was when our earliest primate human ancestors stood up. That was the first upright primate.

(12) Okay, so when we talk about how much time we’re currently investing in playing games, the only way it makes sense to even think about it is to talk about time at the magnitude of human evolution, which is an extraordinary thing. But it’s also apt. Because it turns out that by spending all this time playing games, we’re actually changing what we are capable of as human beings. We are evolving to be a more collaborative and hearty species. This is true. I believe this.

(13) So, consider this really interesting statistic; it was recently published by a researcher at Carnegie Mellon University: The average young person today in a country with a strong gamer culture will have spent 10,000 hours playing online games by the age of 21. Now 10,000 hours is a really interesting number for two reasons. First of all, for children in the United States 10,080 hours is the exact amount of time you will spend in school from fifth grade to high school graduation if you have perfect attendance.

(14) So, we have an entire parallel track of education going on where young people are learning as much about what it takes to be a good gamer as they are learning about everything else in school. And some of you have probably read Malcolm Gladwell’s new book “Outliers.” So, you would have heard of his theory of success, the 10,000 hour theory of success. It’s based on this great cognitive science research that if we can master 10,000 hours of effortful study at anything by the age of 21, we will be virtuosos at it. We will be as good at whatever we do as the greatest people in the world. And so, now what we’re looking at is an entire generation of young people who are virtuoso gamers.

(15) So, the big question is, “What exactly are gamers getting so good at?” Because if we could figure that out, we would have a virtually unprecedented human resource on our hands. This is how many people we now have in the world who spend at least an hour a day playing online games. These are our virtuoso gamers, 500 million people who are extraordinarily good at something. And in the next decade we’re going to have another billion gamers who are extraordinarily good at whatever that is. If you don’t know it already, this is coming. The game industry is developing consoles that are low energy and that work with the wireless phone networks instead of broadband Internet so that gamers all over the world, particularly in India, China, Brazil, can get online. They expect one billion more gamers in the next decade. It will bring us up to 1.5 billion gamers.

to be continued to the lesson3. The lesson3′s text is here.


Let’s talk about the article base on the questions below.

Viewpoints or discussion

  1. Have you had any positive feedback from anyone before, either in real world or in gaming world? Compare your feelings for both feedback.
  2. Why do you think the world of gaming is comfortable compared to the real world?
  3. What will gamers achieve (talents, opportunities, or skills) if they spend 10,000 hours of gaming hours?



(8) ideal /aɪˈdiːəl/ adj.1 ~ (for sth) perfect; most suitable:

collaborative /kəˈlæbərətɪv;/ adj. [only before noun] (formal) involving, or done by, several people or groups of people working together:

(9) show ˈup, (informal) to arrive where you have arranged to meet sb or do sth:

willing /ˈwɪlɪŋ/ adj. 1 [not usually before noun] ~ (to do sth) not objecting to doing sth; having no reason for not doing sth:

mission /ˈmɪʃn/ noun‣YOUR DUTY 5 [C] particular work that you feel it is your duty to do: ‣TASK 8 [C] (BrE, informal) a task or journey that is very difficult and takes a long time to complete:

not just any [形]ただの[並の]…ではない、ただ普通の…ではない

match /mætʃ/ verb ‣BE THE SAME 2 if two things match or if one thing matches another, they are the same or very similar:

sit about/around, (often disapproving) to spend time doing nothing very useful:

wring your hands, to hold your hands together, and twist and squeeze them in a way that shows you are anxious or upset, especially when you cannot change the situation

(10)  sense /sens/ verb (not used in the progressive tenses) ‣BECOME AWARE 1 to become aware of sth even though you cannot see it, hear it, etc.: ◇[V (that)] Lisa sensed that he did not believe her.

have sth at your ˈfingertips, to have the information, knowledge, etc. that is needed in a particular situation and be able to find it easily and use it quickly

level sth↔ˈup, to make standards, amounts, etc. be of the same high or higher level

(11) collectively /kəléktɪvli/ adv. In a collection; in a collective manner; together as a whole; bunched together; to be treated as a single unit, rather than the items that make up the collection separately.

context /ˈkɒntekst/ noun [C, U] 1 the situation in which sth happens and that helps you to understand it:

primate noun 1 /ˈpraɪmeɪt/ any animal that belongs to the group of MAMMALS that includes humans, APES and MONKEYS

upright /ˈʌpraɪt/ adj.1 (of a person) not lying down, and with the back straight rather than bent: 2 placed in a vertical position:

(12) magnitude /ˈmægnɪtjuːd;/ noun ~ (of sth) 1 [U] (formal) the great size or importance of sth; the degree to which sth is large or important: ◇We did not realize the magnitude of the problem.

apt /æpt/ adj. 1 suitable or appropriate in the circumstances:

hearty /ˈhɑːti/ adj. (heart・ier, hearti・est) 1 [usually before noun] showing friendly feelings for sb: 2 (sometimes disapproving) loud, cheerful and full of energy:

(13) statistic /stəˈtɪstɪk/ noun 1 statistics (also informal stats) [pl.] a collection of information shown in numbers:

(14) parallel /ˈpærəlel/ adj. 1 ~ (to/with sth) two or more lines that are parallel to each other are the same distance apart at every point:

track /træk/ noun ‣ROUGH PATH 1 [C] a rough path or road, usually one that has not been built but that has been made by people walking there:

outlier, noun a value far from most others in a set of data

cognitive /ˈkɒgnətɪv;/ adj. [usually before noun] connected with mental processes of understanding:

effortful, adj. Requiring or showing effort.

virtuoso /ˌvᴈːtʃuˈəʊsəʊ / noun (pl. virtuosos or virtuosi /―siː; ―ziː/) a person who is extremely skilful at doing sth, especially playing a musical instrument:

(15) virtually /ˈvᴈːtʃuəli / adv. 1 almost or very nearly, so that any slight difference is not important:

unprecedented /ʌnˈpresɪdentɪd/ adj. that has never happened, been done or been known before:

console² /ˈkɒnsəʊl/ noun, a flat surface which contains all the controls and switches for a machine, a piece of electronic equipment, etc.


(8) 「達成できないことなどない」 ゲームの何がそう思わせるのでしょう? どうしたらその感覚をゲームから取り出して 現実の世界に適用できるのでしょう? それでWorld of Warcraftに目を向けました これは本当に理想的な協同問題解決環境です そしてオンラインの世界で エピックウィンを可能にしているいくつかの要因に気がつきました

(9) 第一に これらのオンラインゲーム 特にWorld of Warcraftの世界に行くと 世界を救うミッションに向かう自分に信頼を寄せる 様々なキャラクターが すぐさま たくさん現れるということです ミッションもランダムなものではなく ゲームの中の自分の 現在のレベルに完璧にマッチしています だから達成することができます 達成し得ない難問は与えられません でもそれは自分にできる限界に近い挑戦で 一生懸命やる必要があります World of Warcraftの世界に失業はありません 悲観して何もしないでいる人もいません いつでも なすべき特別で重要なことがあります そして協力者が山ほどいます どこへ行っても 何十万という人が 自分の壮大なミッションの達成に 力を貸そうと待ち構えています

(10) 現実生活では容易に手にできないものです すぐ手の届くところに協力者が 山ほどいるなんていうのは そしてまた壮大なストーリーがあります 自分の存在と行動に意味を与える物語です ポジティブなフィードバックもたくさんあります 耳にしたことがあるでしょう レベルアップとか 力+1 知性+1といったものを 現実生活には あまりないものです 私がこの講演を終えても 何かもらえるわけではありません 話術+1とか クレージーなアイデア+1とか クレージーなアイデア+20 とかね そんなフィードバックは現実にはないのです

(11) このような協力的オンライン環境の持つ問題は いつもエピックウィンの間際にいる 満足感があまりに強いため 全ての時間を ゲームの世界で 費やすようになることです そこは現実よりも良い世界なのです だからこそWorld of Warcraftのプレーヤーたちは 合計すると593万年分にもなる時間を アゼロスの仮想的な問題の解決に費やしているのです これは必ずしも悪いことではありません まずいことに見えるかもしれませんけど コンテキストの中に置いてみましょう 593万年前といえば 人類の祖先が直立二足歩行をするようになった頃です 最初に直立した霊長類です

(12) だから私たちが現在ゲームにどれくらい時間を使っているかを 意味のある形で考えようと思ったら 人類の進化というスケールの時間で 捉える必要があるのです これはものすごいことですが 適切なことでもあります ゲームをして過ごす時間によって 私たちは人類として可能なことを 実際に変えてきたからです そうやって私たちは 協力的で心暖かい種へと進化してきたのです 本当です 私はそう信じています

(13) 考えて欲しい興味深いデータがあります 最近カーネギーメロン大の研究者が公表したものですが 今日 ゲーム文化が強い国では 平均的な若者は21歳までに オンラインゲームで1万時間を 費やすということです 1万時間というのが興味深い 理由が2つあります 第一に アメリカの子供にとって 10,080時間というのは 小学5年から高校卒業まで 無欠席の場合に 学校で過ごす時間です

(14) だから まったく並行した2つの 教育過程があることになります 優れたゲーマーに必要なことを学ぶために その他全てのことを学校で学ぶのと 同じだけの時間を費やすのです グラッドウェルの「天才! 成功する人々の法則」を 読まれた人もいるでしょう 彼の「成功の1万時間の理論」を お聞きになっているでしょう これは認知科学研究に基づいていて どんなことであれ ひたむきに勉強を1万時間するなら それに関して名人になります 21までに その道の達人になれます 世界で最高の人達に肩を並べるくらい 優れたものになれるのです そうであれば 私たちの目の前には ゲームに関して名人級の若い人々が まるまる一世代分いることになります

(15) ここで大きな疑問は 「ゲーマーが上達させるのは正確にどういう面なのか?」ということです もしそれがわかれば 私たちは空前の人的リソースを 手にすることになります この図は現在世界でオンラインゲームに 一日一時間以上費やす人の数を示しています 彼らはゲームの達人なのです とあることに傑出した人が5億人もいるのです そして次の10年で さらに 10億のゲーマーを手にすることになります それが何であるにせよ ある面で際立って優れた人々です ご存じないかもしれませんが ゲーム業界では小さなエネルギーで動き ブロードバンドの代わりにワイヤレス携帯ネットワークで使える ゲーム機を開発しています それによって世界中のゲーマー 特にインド 中国 ブラジルの人々をオンラインに引き込むためです 次の10年でゲーマーが10億人増えるのです それにより私たちの元には15億人のゲーマーがいることになります

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