★★★TED Lesson / Dan Pink on the surprising science of motivation, Lesson4 (ダニエル・ピンク 「やる気に関する驚きの科学」)

2012年08月05日 ★★★, business, science, TED.

TED Dan Pink : on the surprising science of motivation


About This Talk

Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don’t: Traditional rewards aren’t always as effective as we think. Listen for illuminating stories — and maybe, a way forward.

*There is a word list below the script. The list includes blue colored words which are in the script.

*This is the fourth lesson of the Jason Fried speech. Lesson1 is here. Lesson2 is here. Lesson3 is here.




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Lesson4 Script (Video Time 13:03 ~ 15:17)

(22) I want to talk today only about autonomy. In the 20th century, we came up with this idea of management. Management did not emanate from nature. Management is like — it’s not a tree, it’s a television set. Okay? Somebody invented it. And it doesn’t mean it’s going to work forever. Management is great. Traditional notions of management are great if you want compliance. But if you want engagement, self-direction works better.

(23) Let me give you some examples of some kind of radical notions of self-direction. What this means — you don’t see a lot of it, but you see the first stirrings of something really interesting going on, because what it means is paying people adequately and fairly, absolutely — getting the issue of money off the table, and then giving people lots of autonomy. Let me give you some examples.

(24) How many of you have heard of the company Atlassian? It looks like less than half.(Laughter) Atlassian is an Australian software company. And they do something incredibly cool. A few times a year they tell their engineers, “Go for the next 24 hours and work on anything you want, as long as it’s not part of your regular job. Work on anything you want.” So that engineers use this time to come up with a cool patch for code, come up with an elegant hack. Then they present all of the stuff that they’ve developed to their teammates, to the rest of the company, in this wild and wooly all-hands meeting at the end of the day. And then, being Australians, everybody has a beer.

(25) They call them FedEx Days. Why? Because you have to deliver something overnight. It’s pretty. It’s not bad. It’s a huge trademark violation, but it’s pretty clever. (Laughter) That one day of intense autonomy has produced a whole array of software fixes that might never have existed.

(26) And it’s worked so well that Atlassian has taken it to the next level with 20 Percent Time –done, famously, at Google — where engineers can work, spend 20 percent of their time working on anything they want. They have autonomy over their time, their task, their team, their technique. Okay? Radical amounts of autonomy. And at Google, as many of you know, about half of the new products in a typical year are birthed during that 20 Percent Time: things like Gmail, Orkut, Google News.

(27) Let me give you an even more radical example of it: something called the Results Only Work Environment, the ROWE, created by two American consultants, in place in place at about a dozen companies around North America. In a ROWE people don’t have schedules. They show up when they want. They don’t have to be in the office at a certain time, or any time. They just have to get their work done. How they do it, when they do it, where they do it, is totally up to them. Meetings in these kinds of environments are optional.

(28) What happens? Almost across the board, productivity goes up, worker engagement goes up, worker satisfaction goes up, turnover goes down. Autonomy, mastery and purpose, these are the building blocks of a new way of doing things. Now some of you might look at this and say, “Hmm, that sounds nice, but it’s Utopian.” And I say, “Nope. I have proof.”

To be continued to Lesson5.


Let’s talk about the article base on the questions below.

Viewpoints or discussion

  1. How can autonomy help improve productivity in your company?
  2. If you can spend 20 percent time of your work on your own, what things will you come up with?
  3. Do you want to work in a company that is applying ROWE in their working system? Why or why not?



(22) emanate /ˈɛməˌneɪt/ verb, 1. to come out from a source 2. to send (something) out : to give out (something)

notion /ˈnoʊʃən/ noun, 1. an idea or opinion 2. an idea about doing something : a sudden wish or desire

compliance /kəmˈplajəns/ noun, the act or process of doing what you have been asked or ordered to do : the act or process of complying

self-direction, directed or guided by oneself; regulated or conducted by oneself

(23) radical /ˈrædɪkəl/ adjective, 1. a: very new and different from what is traditional or ordinary b: very basic and important  2. having extreme political or social views that are not shared by most people

stir /ˈstɚ/ verb, to move or cause (someone or something) to move after being still

adequate /ˈædɪkwət/ adjective, 1. enough for some need or requirement 2. good enough : of a quality that is good or acceptable

absolute /ˈæbsəˌlu:t/ adjective, 1 always used before a noun : complete and total, often used informally to make a statement more forceful

(24) go for sth, to put a lot of effort into sth, so that you get or achieve sth:

patch /pætʃ/ n [C] PART OF AN AREA, a small area of something that is different from the area around it:

wild and wooly adjective, unrestrained; lawless

(25) overnight /ˌəʊvəˈnaɪt/ adv, for or during the night

trademark /ˈtreɪdˌmɑɚk/ noun, 1. something (such as a word) that identifies a particular company’s product and cannot be used by another company without permission

clever /ˈklɛvɚ/ adjective, 1. intelligent and able to learn things quickly

intense /ɪnˈtɛns/ adjective, 1. very great in degree : very strong 2. a: done with or showing great energy, enthusiasm, or effort b: b of a person : very serious

array /əˈreɪ/ noun,  a large group or number of things



(22) 今日は自主性についてだけお話ししましょう 20世紀にマネジメントという考えが生まれました マネジメントというのは自然に生じたものではありません マネジメントは木のようなものではなく テレビのようなものです 誰かが発明したのです 永久に機能しつづけはしないということです マネジメントは素晴らしいです 服従を望むなら 伝統的なマネジメントの考え方は ふさわしいものです しかし参加を望むなら 自主性のほうがうまく機能します

(23) 自主性について少し過激な考え方の 例を示しましょう あまり多くはありませんが 非常に面白いことが起きています 人々に適切に 公正に 間違いなく 支払い お金の問題はそれ以上考えさせないことにします そして人々に大きな自主性を認めます 具体的な例でお話しします

(24) Atlassianという会社をご存じの方はどれくらいいますか? (誰も手を挙げない) …半分もいない感じですね (笑) Atlassianはオーストラリアのソフトウェア会社です 彼らはすごくクールなことをやっています 1年に何回か エンジニアたちに言うのです 「これから24時間何をやってもいい 普段の仕事の一部でさえなければ何でもいい 何でも好きなことをやれ」 エンジニアたちはこの時間を使って コードを継ぎ接ぎしたり エレガントなハックをしたりします そしてその日の終わりには 雑然とした全員参加の会合があって チームメートや会社のみんなに 何を作ったのか見せるのです オーストラリアですからみんなでビールを飲みます

(25) 彼らはこれを「FedExの日」と呼んでいます なぜかって? それは何かを一晩で送り届けなければならないからです 素敵ですよね 商標権は侵害しているかもしれませんが ピッタリしています (笑) この1日の集中的な自主活動で生まれた 多数のソフトウェアの修正は この活動なしには生まれなかったでしょう

(26) これがうまくいったので次のレベルへと進み 「20パーセントの時間」を始めました Googleがやっていることで有名ですね エンジニアは仕事時間の20パーセントを 何でも好きなことに使うことができます 時間、タスク、チーム、使う技術 すべてに自主性が認められます すごく大きな裁量です そしてGoogleでは よく知られている通り 新製品の半分近くが この20パーセントの時間から生まれています Gmail、Orkut、Google Newsなどがそうです

(27) さらに過激な例をご紹介しましょう 「完全結果志向の職場環境」と呼ばれるものがあります ROWE (Results Only Work Environment) アメリカのコンサルタントたちにより考案され 実施している会社が北アメリカに10社ばかりあります ROWEでは 人々にはスケジュールがありません 好きなときに出社できます 特定の時間に会社にいなきゃいけないということがありません 全然行かなくてもかまいません ただ仕事を成し遂げれば良いのです どのようにやろうと いつやろうと どこでやろうと かまわないのです そのような環境では ミーティングはオプショナルです

(28) どんな結果になるのでしょう? ほとんどの場合 生産性は上がり 雇用期間は長くなり 社員満足度は上がり 離職率は下がります 自主性 成長 目的は 物事をする新しいやり方の構成要素なのです こういう話を聞いて 「結構だけど 夢物語だね」と言う人もいることでしょう 違います 証拠があるのです


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