Read and understand the article. If you may have any difficult words to pronounce and words you cannot understand, always ask your teacher.
*Teachers will divide the article into 2-3 paragraphs to help you understand and check the pronunciation of the difficult words.
*Read the words carefully.
- brotherly /ˈbrʌðɚli/ (adj.) showing or suggesting the love and closeness of a brother
- quaker /ˈkweɪkɚ/ (n.)a member of a Christian religious group whose members dress simply, are against violence, and have meetings without any special ceremony or priests
- cradle /ˈkreɪdl̟/ (n.)the place where something begins
- rarely /ˈreɚli/ (adv.)not very often
- note /ˈnoʊt/(v.)to notice or pay attention to (something)
* Read the text below
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(1)Almost all American cities have nicknames. They help establish a city’s identity. They can also spread unity and pride among its citizens.
(2) Two east coast cities — Philadelphia and Boston — were both important in the early history of the United States. Philadelphia is best known as “The City of Brotherly Love.”
(3) In 1681, King Charles the Second, of England, gave William Penn a large amount of land to establish a colony. The king named the colony Pennsylvania in honor of Penn’s father. William Penn was a Quaker. He brought his beliefs about equality, religious freedom and brotherly love to this new land. Penn was also an expert in Latin and Greek. He established a city and named it Philadelphia, which is Greek for “brotherly love.” An ancient city called Philadelphia was also noted in Christianity’s holy book, the Bible.
(4) Philadelphia became the social, political and geographical center of the American colonies. In the late 1700s, many events that took place in Philadelphia gave birth to the American Revolution and independence. For example, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were signed in the city. Philadelphia was the temporary capital of the new nation from 1790 to 1800.
(5) Some of Philadelphia’s other nicknames are “The Quaker City,” “The Cradle of Liberty” and “The Birthplace of America.” Philadelphia is a long name. So many people just call it “Philly.”
(6) Boston is another important city. It is one of the oldest cities in the United States. In 1630, Puritan settlers from England established Boston in what would become the state of Massachusetts.
(7) Several major events took place in Boston before and during the American Revolution. You may have heard of the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party and the Battle of Bunker Hill.
(8) So, like Philadelphia, Boston is called “The Cradle of Liberty.” Another nickname is “The Cradle of Modern America.”
(9) However, Boston’s most famous nickname is “Beantown.” But it was not because the city grew a lot of beans. In the 1700s, Boston was a major trading center. It received a lot of sugarcane from the West Indies. Beans baked in molasses — a sugar product — became a favorite food in the city. Today, no companies there make Boston baked beans. Restaurants in Boston rarely serve it. But many Americans eat this tasty dish at home.
*Let’s talk about the article base on the questions below
- What is you city like? Describe your city according to culture and people’s characteristic.
- Does your city have a special nickname? What is it? Why do you think it is named that way?
- What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘freedom’?